Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) is a massive city-modernisation scheme launched by the Government of India under Ministry of Urban Development. It envisages a total investment of over $20 billion over seven years. Named after Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, the scheme was officially inaugurated by prime minister Manmohan Singh on 3 December 2005 as a programme meant to improve the quality of life and infrastructure in the cities. It was launched in 2005 for a seven-year period (up to March 2012) to encourage cities to initiate steps for bringing phased improvements in their civic service levels. The government had extended the tenure of the mission for two years, i.e., from April 2012 to March 31- 2014.
JnNURM is a huge mission which relates primarily to development in the context of urban conglomerates focusing to the Indian cities. JnNURM aims at creating ‘economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive Cities’ by a strategy of upgrading the social and economic infrastructure in cities, provision of Basic Services to Urban Poor (BSUP) and wide-ranging urban sector reforms to strengthen municipal governance in accordance with the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992.
The aim is to encourage reforms and fast track planned development of identified cities. Focus is to be on efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms, community participation, and accountability of ULBs/ Parastatal agencies towards citizens.
Objectives of the Mission:
(1) The objectives of the JnNURM are to ensure that the following are achieved in the urban sector;.
(a) Focussed attention to integrated development of infrastructure services in cities covered under the Mission;.
(b) Establishment of linkages between asset-creation and asset-management through a slew of reforms for long-term project sustainability;.
(c) Ensuring adequate funds to meet the deficiencies in urban infrastructural services;.
(d) Planned development of identified cities including peri-urban areas, outgrowths and urban corridors leading to dispersed urbanisation;.
(e) Scale-up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to the urban poor;.
(f ) Special focus on urban renewal programme for the old city areas to reduce congestion; and
(g) Provision of basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply and sanitation, and ensuring delivery of other existing universal services of the government for education, health and social security.
Expected Outcomes of the JnNURM:
On completion of the Mission period, it is expected that ULBs and parastatal agencies will have achieved the following:
(1) Modern and transparent budgeting, accounting, financial management systems, designed and adopted for all urban service and governance functions
(2) City-wide framework for planning and governance will be established and become operational
(3) All urban residents will be able to obtain access to a basic level of urban services
(4) Financially self-sustaining agencies for urban governance and service delivery will be established, through reforms to major revenue instruments
(5) Local services and governance will be conducted in a manner that is transparent and accountable to citizens
(6) E-governance applications will be introduced in core functions of ULBs/Parastatal resulting in reduced cost and time of service delivery processes.
As per the JnNURM guidelines, only select cities/Urban Agglomerations (UAs) as per 2001 Census have been chosen for the implementation of the programme as per norms/criteria mentioned below:
A) Cities/UAs with 4 million plus population as per 2001 census
B) Cities/UAs with 1 million plus but less than 4 million population as per 2001 census
C) Selected cities/UAs (state capitals and other cities/UAs of religious/historic and touristic importance)
A total of 67 cities are eligible (up from 63 initially), provided that they have elected bodies in position. 13 specific reforms are mandatory for states and municipalities before funds can be accessed. At the state level, they include decentralisation of urban planning, water supply and sanitation from the states to cities, as well as the enactment of laws for community participation and public disclosure. At the municipal level, they include the adoption of modern accounting systems, e-government, improvements in property tax collection, better cost recovery for water supply, sanitation and solid waste management, and targeting of investments to the poor.
Sources: www.jnnurm.nic.in, Wikipedia.